Fraud & Pandemics From The Spanish Flu To The Present

Fraud is often mistakenly treated as a homogeneous phenomenon, whereas it actually consists of many different stocks and flows of activities and our responses to them. Drawing on work conducted for the British Academy, Economic and Social Research Council and the Australian Institute of Criminology, Professor Mike Levi from Cardiff University examines the evidence on changes in fraud during pandemics and economic crises since Spanish Flu; whether there is good evidence that frauds were particularly impacted by the covid-19 pandemic, either positively or negatively; and what lessons can be learned for our responses to frauds of different types.


Michael Levi has a distinguished track record of transnational and multidisciplinary research. In particular, he has built an international reputation for excellence in both fundamental and policy-oriented research on money laundering, corruption, cybercrimes, transnational organised crime and white-collar crimes.

Michael has played an advisory role both internationally (with the European Commission and Parliament, Europol, Council of Europe, UN and World Economic Forum) and nationally (with the UK Home Office and Cabinet Office, and with the Crime Statistics Advisory Committee).

Michael recent research paper on the subject is free to access:

Levi M & Smith R 2021. Fraud and its relationship to pandemics and economic crises: From Spanish flu to COVID-19. Research Report no. 19. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.


Graeme Gordon is a chartered accountant and prior to joining Praxity was Managing Director and Senior Tutor of Emile Woolf Group, the international training and development firm. He was also previously Group Finance Director of a technology company listed on the London Stock Exchange. Graeme has extensive international experience including in Europe, Russia, North America, the Far East, the Indian Sub-Continent and the Middle East. Before becoming a chartered accountant Graeme served as an officer in the Royal Navy. He is a member of the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales and formerly twice President of the Thames Valley Chartered Accountants.

Wednesday, 30 June 2021

11:00 - 11:45 BST


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    Professor Michael Levi
    Professor of Criminology
    Cardiff University
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    Graeme Gordon
    Chief Executive Officer